Biomarkers: Our Liver's Guardian

  • Liver is an organ that gives priority to metabolic function, playing the role that go oxidizing, store liver candy, secretion sex protein is synthesized etc. It is the largest organ in the internal organs of the human body, located in the abdomen of the human body, under the right diaphragm, in front of the gallbladder and above the stomach. The liver is also the largest digestive gland in the human digestive system. The average adult liver weighs 1.5 kg (about 1-2.5 kg). It is the main organ for urea synthesis and metabolism.

    Biomarkers are biochemical indicators that can mark changes in the structure or function of systems, organs, tissues, cells and subcells, which have a wide range of applications. They can reflect physiological, pathological processes or drug responses to therapeutic interventions, and play an important role in early diagnosis, disease prevention, drug target determination, drug response and other aspects. And the biomarker for cancer diagnosis has become an important research focus. It also plays an important role in the diagnosis and treatment of liver diseases.

    Among the biomarkers of liver disease, we focus on the liver inflammation biomarkers and serum biomarkers for liver fibrosis. Through the inflammatory biomarker testing, it is possible to determine whether the patient is infected with hepatitis virus. Common liver viral markers include hepatitis an antibody, two halves of hepatitis b, hepatitis b virus DNA, hepatitis c antibody, hepatitis c virus RNA, hepatitis d antibody and hepatitis e virus antibody. Biomarkers of various types of hepatitis mainly include the following:

    1. Hepatitis A

    Anti-HAV-IgM: The disease course can be positive in the early stage, lasting 3-6 months. It is the most convenient and reliable serological marker for the early diagnosis of hepatitis a and the marker of recent infection.

    Anti-HAV-IgG: occurs later, peaks at 2-3 months, lasts for many years or for life. It is a protective antibody and a sign of immunity. Double serum anti-HAV-IgG titer in the acute phase and convalescent phase increased by more than 4 times, which is also an important basis for the diagnosis of hepatitis.

    1. Hepatitis B

    HBcAg: HBcAg is present in the nucleus of Dane granules and in the infected liver nucleus. In general, free HBcAg cannot be detected in the blood, but it can be detected if the HBV granules are opened. Positive HBcAg indicates the presence of infected HBV in the patient's serum. The higher the HBcAg content is, the more active HBV replication is, the more infectious it is, and the worse the prognosis is.

    HBVDNA:It is a direct sign of viral replication and infectivity.

    1. Hepatitis C

    Anti-HCV: It's not a protective antibody, it's a sign of HCV infection. HCV antibodies are present in most patients infected with HCV. However, due to its slow occurrence, it is usually positive 2~6 months after the onset of the disease, and some of them only appear in the 12th month.

    1. Hepatitis D

    Anti-HDIgM: Positive is evidence of infection.

    Anti- HDIgM: High titer indicates persistence of infection, while low titer indicates quiescence or end of infection

    1. Hepatitis E

    Anti-HEV IgG: the titer was higher in the acute phase and decreased significantly in the recovery phase. A small number of patients with hepatitis e never develop it.

    Hepatic fibrosis is a common pathway of liver injury caused by various chronic liver diseases. Its non-invasive assessment method is convenient and easy to implement, which is convenient for dynamic disease monitoring and has clinical application value. Serological markers of liver fibrosis include direct markers reflecting the generation of extracellular matrix, as well as indirect markers reflecting the liver's synthesis, metabolism and reserve functions. A variety of comprehensive evaluation models of serological markers can determine significant fibrosis and liver cirrhosis, reduce unnecessary liver biopsy, and assist in the diagnosis, prognosis, treatment and monitoring of diseases. There are great differences in the analytical performance between the existing detection platform of serological markers and the reagent. The standardization of detection will help to improve the comparability of results. Large-scale, multi-center clinical validation study is very necessary to popularize the comprehensive serum marker evaluation model suitable for Chinese chronic liver disease population.

    Liver is the largest organ in our body, and its function is also crucial. It is involved in metabolism, digestion and other aspects of the body. Biomarkers can play a good role in prevention and protection of our liver, and a good liver is a strong guarantee for our health. In addition, undertake maintaining to the liver actively in the life, the occurrence that prevents all sorts of liver disease also is the practice that is the most responsible to oneself health.