Characteristics of peptide nucleic acids

  • Peptide nucleic acids, a class of DNA analogs that replace the sugar phosphate backbone with a polypeptide backbone, are a new nucleic acid sequence-specific reagent that Danish organic chemist Ole Buchardt and biochemist Peter Nielsen began to study in the 1980s. It is a third-generation antisense reagent constructed and finally synthesized by computer design based on the first generation and second-generation antisense reagents. It is a brand-new DNA analog, ie neutral peptide chain amide. The 2-aminoethylglycine bond replaces the pentose phosphodiester bond backbone in DNA, and the rest is identical to DNA. PNA can recognize and bind DNA or RNA sequences by Watson-Crick base pairing to form a stable double helix. structure.


    Basic explanation and definition

    (peptide nucleic acids, PNA) Because PNA does not have a negative charge, there is no electrostatic repulsion between DNA and RNA, so the stability and specificity of binding are greatly improved; unlike DNA or DNA, RNA hybridization, PNA Hybridization with DNA or RNA is hardly affected by the salt concentration of the hybrid system, and the ability to hybridize with DNA or RNA molecules is much better than DNA/DNA or DNA/RNA, showing high hybridization stability, excellent specific sequence recognition ability, Not hydrolyzed by nucleases and proteases. And can be transfected into the cells together with the ligand. These are all advantages that other oligonucleotides do not have. In view of the advantages that many of these DNA molecules do not have, they have found use in many high-tech fields for the past decade.


    Peptide nucleic acid and DNA/RNA mainly have four ways of binding, 1: standard poly-purine PNA invades double-stranded DNA; 2: PNA double-stranded invasion,


    Forming a stable complex, but only on PNA molecules containing modified bases; 3: Traditional triplex structure, binding of cytosine-rich polypyrimidine PNA to complementary poly-purinated DNA targets; 4 : Stable triple-strand invasion complex, resulting in a single-stranded DNA single strand forming a D-loop structure.



    According to the metabolic stability of PNA, it is mainly used in the field of antisense drug research to inhibit gene expression. Several foreign pharmaceutical and biotechnology companies, ISIS, PE and other companies have invested a lot of energy in development research; according to their excellent DNA Hybridization stability, PNA is widely used for DNA molecule recognition and manipulation. PNA can be widely used in pathogen hybridization, molecular hybridization, in situ hybridization, mutation analysis, anticancer, antiviral antisense nucleic acid research and application. In particular, PNA can replace oligonucleotides for the preparation of gene chips, which will be more stable and specific than ordinary gene chips. It is considered as an upgrade product of gene chips, and it is believed that in the development of clinical diagnostic chips. PNA can also be used for quantitative PCR, which can be used to detect PCR amplification reactions in real time. It can also be used as a PNA Beacon for real-time monitoring of RNA expression in cells. With the continuous deepening of PNA basic research and the emergence of new technologies, PNA will show unparalleled performance and broader application prospects.


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